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  Blog: VPN through an SSH server

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Just a guy, working with computers, living his life...

VPN through an SSH server

I’m at a company now where I work from work, and from home. And much of the work involves access to work servers in the lab. We have access through a single SSH server, running on a “bastion host” on a non-standard port. No real VPN.

So, when I’m at home, I want quick access to everything on the work lan. HTTP servers (running gitlab, jenkins, bugzilla, wiki, etc), GIT servers (over ssh and git), VMWare servers, RDP servers, etc… I quickly got tired of the man port-forwards, and trying to remember what local port was pointing at which “remote” service.

My solution to this involved the SSH server we have access to, SSH’s built-in SOCKS5 proxy, and redsocks, a proxy server that makes use of “REDIRECT” firewall rules. I had discovered redsocks previously when I used to have a device that wanted network access (Nexus 7 Tablet) in an environment where I had no wifi (and wasn’t allowed to run a wifi) and everything needed to go through a corporate HTTP proxy. Bluetooth PAN + redsocks gave my tablet network access then, and now gives me transparent access to my work LAN wherever I am.

One potential problem is if both the “work lan” and my “home lan” are using the same address range. That would cause IP address conflicts between home devices, and work devices. But thankfully, I don’t have such a conflict. When I numbered my home LAN, I purposely avoided, which it seems most other network use “by default”.

So, when I’m at home (or in a cafe with wifi), I have transparent access to any services in my work lan.

Step 1: Set up a persistant SSH connection

Since the SSH SOCKS proxy is my access to the work LAN, I have a persitant SSH connection running on my laptop. It’s this simple:

while date; do ssh -S none -d 4444 $USER@$SSH_SERVER -t watch date; sleep 1; done

This is just a simple loop that retries the SSH connection if it ever dies. The “watch date” part just makes sure there is somethign in it, so I can easily see if it’s “stuck”.

You should verify now that your SOCKS5 proxy works to get you stuff in the work lan now:

echo GET / | socat - SOCKS:localhost:192.168.1.XXX:80,socksport=4444

Pick an IP address where your work lan has a HTTP server listening, and verify that you get the response you expect.

Step 2: Install redsocks transparent proxy

Install redsocks:

apt-get install redsocks

Make sure it’s enabled in /etc/default/redsocks.

Configure redsocks by editing /etc/redsocks.conf. I have it set to send all redirected TCP connections (port 12345) through my SSH SOCKS proxy (port 4444), and to “stub” any DNS/UDP packet on port 12353 as “truncated answer” to redirect it to TCP (which is then handled by the TCP redirection proxy).

Here are my 2 redsock stanza:

redsocks {
	/* `local_ip' defaults to for security reasons,
	 * use if you want to listen on every interface.
	 * `local_*' are used as port to redirect to.
	local_ip =;
	local_port = 12345;

	// `ip' and `port' are IP and tcp-port of proxy-server
	// You can also use hostname instead of IP, only one (random)
	// address of multihomed host will be used.
	ip =;
	port = 4444;

	// known types: socks4, socks5, http-connect, http-relay
	type = socks5;

	// login = "foobar";
	// password = "baz";

dnstc {
	// fake and really dumb DNS server that returns "truncated answer" to
	// every query via UDP, RFC-compliant resolver should repeat same query
	// via TCP in this case.
	local_ip =;
	local_port = 12353;

Step 3: Setup dnsmasq

In my setup, I use dnsmasq on my laptop as a “local resolver”. Dnsmasq works really well with resolvconf on debian, so any time I get DNS servers from DHCP, or from static interfaces, dnsmasq automatically forwards requests to them, unless a local config overrides it.

In my case, I have this in my dnsmasq.conf:


This tells my dnsmasq that for resolving my work addresses, always use the work lan DNS server.

Step 3: Setup iptables

To make traffic go through the redsocks transparent proxy, just make use of the iptables REDIRECT nat target to point traffic to it. I have a REDSOCKS chain I send traffic into, and it looks like:

Chain REDSOCKS (2 references)
    pkts      bytes target     prot opt in     out     source               destination         
    2495   159894 RETURN     all  --  *      *           !      
       0        0 RETURN     all  --  *      *           
       0        0 REDIRECT   udp  --  *      *              udp dpt:53 redir ports 12353
      20     1200 REDIRECT   tcp  --  *      *              redir ports 12345

The 1st rule is just a shortcut, if traffic get’s in there that’s not destined for my work network, just return. The 2nd rule checks that I’m on on the work lan, if it is, just returns it.

The 3rd rule redirects the “DNS UDP” traffic to my redsocks DNS stub. That will just make every UDP DNS query to my work lan DNS servers be instantly with a “truncated answer” and the DNS query switches to TCP.

The 4th rule catches all TCP connections, and redirects them to redsocks.

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